[MILIPOL REPORT N°3] The “smart and safe” City

On this last day of conferences, the strategic intelligence team also followed round tables and interventions on the security of public spaces, cities and smart communities. The Internet of Things is challenging the urban security issues of Smart Cities, notably with the installation of sensors in the heart of cities. A first round table focused on the notions of “smart and safe” as major and inseparable components for cities and communities. The panel of speakers included actors such as:

  • Anne LE HENANFF, National Vice-President, Internet Cities ;
  • François MURGADELLA, Head of the “Security Technology ;Development” Unit, SGDSN (The General Secretariat for Defence and National Security) ;
  • Patrice PEPIN, Director of Municipal Police and Commercial Affairs, City of Roanne and ANCTS (Association Nationale des Cadres Territoriaux de Sécurité) ;
  • Caroline POZMENTIER, Vice-President, Regional Council of South-Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, Delegate for International Relations, Deputy Mayor, Delegate for Public Safety and Crime Prevention, City of Marseille

All actors for the community, the speakers took turns presenting their experiences and warned of the need to address the challenges of security in the heart of cities.

For Anne LE HENANFF, data will be at the heart of cities and will become the common resource for local authorities. It will be necessary to requalify it for smart uses and to protect it. However, it will also be necessary to have irreproachable data backup qualities. Well qualified data that is used and exploited, especially by small municipalities, is a huge source of savings. As such, Philadelphia has installed sensors on garbage cans, which represents a million dollars in savings per year. Grenoble has installed sensors on urban heating networks to detect possible water leaks and intervene before upstream flooding. The established sensors make it possible to better manage resources (mobility and energy) and be more efficient.

The Smart City is a source of savings through four pillars: Smart economy, energy, people, and mobility. Worldwide, 2,400 cities are involved in a smart city approach. In France, we are behind in this area. E-administration should not be confused with Smart City, which is a trusted territory. According to Anne LE HENANFF, France is far from the mark, for several reasons.

  • Big Cities are mainly in a smart city approach. They are the ones who have the budgets; they have the size to be able to have a real Smart City project. Their budget is on a national or even European scale. We should also note the divide between regions and rural areas. Small conurbations are left behind because they have few resources and little expertise;
  • France lacks a roadmap and clarification at a governmental level of what is expected of local authorities;
  • The project must be cross cutting, and not function by profession;
  • There is a too low level of security of municipalities and information systems, it is necessary to ensure the safe city first;

A survey has shown that 70% of the communes have not implemented GDPR procedures, even though this helps the communes to develop their level of cybersecurity. Local elected officials are not experts on digital security and call on external partners (additional costs). However, it is necessary to have deputy mayors who have a good knowledge of the subject. Security must be integrated into the design of smart cities. A vision of the smart city must be developed. Last point she insisted on: The success of Smart Cities depends on people.

François MURGADELLA replied that his administration was also concerned because the secretariat is involved in the subject of trusted territories, which he considers the beginning of a roadmap. He indicated that there are working groups at the European level in a council-commission format that deals with the public space since 2016. In addition, he raised the issue of security rules, highlighting the difficulty for online services that have to manage data. Finally, he highlighted the duality of these measures in terms of the different purposes to justify investment in transport management in particular.

The director of the police of the city of Roanna, Patrice Pépin, highlighted the need for a smart city to be at the service of operational and strategic management as well as the need to centralize applications, accessible in a practical way to operators. In the city of Roanne, an aggression alert for businesses has been set up to report aggression directly on the town hall platform. The city recalls the shopkeeper and can send the police.

Caroline POZMENTIER, spoke for and on behalf of the city of Marseille. Through a case study, the Vice-President and Deputy Mayor spoke about the development of the “safe city” in the heart of Marseille. She asked herself the question: “How can a territory develop a policy focused on people’s safety? ». Mayors have seen their power and competences strengthened, but they can only exercise this policy through a partnership based on State investment. Town halls are responsible for the management of public space. The city of Marseille has developed a data processing platform for the tranquility of public space, for better management with better anticipation. There are thirteen sets of data, including a handrail from the municipal police, “allo mairie”, or the regulatory orders of the administrative police.

Finally, Gérard Herby, Vice President Protection Systems, Thales, presented a case study on “new technologies for the security of cities and public spaces”. It is a fact that cities are growing worldwide. 50% of the world’s population lives in cities, and 75% in 2050. Improving safety goes hand in hand with improving quality of life, mobility, interaction with citizens, use of resources etc. Crime is also increasing. Oslo, Mexico City, Barcelona, San Francisco have implemented security technologies. Cities aim to prevent and predict crime and to hold tactical situations. For example, the development of secure Wi-Fi in an archaeological site in the Middle East has prevented attacks. Various technologies are being implemented, namely:

  • Wireless communication technologies: mobility of mobile connections, 4G, mesh networks, PNR networks, high-speed etc. major challenge for the security sector. e.g. reduced investment, simplified deployment, supports existing civil infrastructure ;
  • IoT: deployment of sensors to capture data and send it back to a command center. Examples: In Nice, for example, sensors measuring rising water levels to detect overflow and organize mobility. Appearance of intelligent cameras to measure population density;
  •  Enhanced sensors: Microsystems that become sensors in themselves: for example, UAVs, UAV sensor systems, microphones (there are many in Mexico City to detect gunfire), underwater sonars to detect terrorist intrusion by maritime see;
  • Capturing emotions online;
  • Analytics: Video analytics is based on video surveillance. Real-time processing of filmed data. Detection of abandoned luggage, physical altercations.
  • IA/Big Data and Cloud: architecture that provides storage-computing capacity and transforms business models;